grand oral AMC

Publié le 07/06/2024

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« Oral officiel : In recent decades, many countries have been rapidly urbanising, and above 90% of future urban growth is projected to occur in developing countries Historically, urbanisation has been linked to economic development and growth.

However, in Kenya, the relationship between urbanisation and economic growth is hotly debated.

Urbanisation in Kenya can be traced to urban agglomeration in the form of commercial hubs extending back to the 19th century.

As many of the metropolitan centres in Kenya were use as administrative and political control centres by colonial authorities before independence.

This has led to rapid urbanisation in Kenya and has continued for decades.

Since 1948, the number of Kenyans living in cities has increased from 5 percent to 35 percent in 2000.

Nairobi, Kenya's largest metropolis has a population of more than 5 million people and presently accounts for 45 percent of the urban population.

Nairobi is also home to one of the world's largest slums. In this presentation we will discuss about the impacts of Urban Sprawl in Kibera.

We will first take a look at the situation of Kibera and end with examples of initiatives that made the living conditions better in this shanty town. To answer this problematic we will use 4 document: the first document is a press article written by ASTHA RAJVANSHI published by Time on November 2023. the second document also a press article written by Bernardine MuTANu published by Nation on June 2019 The third document is an excerpt from the book Find Me Unafraid: Love, Loss, and Hope in an African Slum written by Kennedy and Jessica POSNER And the last but not least document is a picture showing how urban farming can change the environnement taken by Paula Kahumbu on September 4, 2008 published by’s website I) We will first take a look at the situation of Kibera : Nairobi’s vast slums and informal settlements are, like all communities, places where people live, work, eat, sleep and raise their children.

But the residents of these informal settlements must cope with inadequate housing, little access to water, sanitation and other basic services, and the ever-present threat of forced eviction. Bernardine MUTANU's press article exposes the sanitation crisis rampant in Kibera.

It vividly describes the flow of murky water from an open sewer “flowing through several villages”, unlike normal villages where the roads are the link between villages.

This murky water contaminates the clean water residents use for living.

The doc gives us the example of a resident who “is not sure about the safety of the drinking water given the proximity of the pipes to the open sewer” but He is mandatory or He will die.

This contaminated water, poses a health hazard to the residents, underscoring the stark lack of adequate sanitation infrastructure, this is a big issue in the metropolis because “only 50 % of residents are covered by a sewerage system” because “a large proportion of households are not connected due to the costs of maintaining a connection or due to the poor functioning of the system.” even in places “where residents can afford to pay for the services, they are not existent”.

The situation underscores the urgent need for investment in improving sanitation infrastructure to ensure the well-being and safety of all residents, particularly those living in informal settlements like Kibera.

The ineffective and inadequate water delivery in slum areas needs government policy revision.

For this to be addressed, the government needs a bottom-up approach to ensure the unreliability and inadequacy of water supply systems are solved in the slum areas. “No one knows how many people live inside the slum - estimates range up to one million people in a space about the size of Central Park, entirely marginalized.” said Kennedy ODEDE and Jessica POSNER in their book.

To give you an idea, the area of the Reunion Island is A 1000 time bigger with a population 800 000.

This document portrays the stark transition between the affluent downtown area of Nairobi and the sprawling slum of Kibera.

Initially, the narrator walks amidst the towering skyscrapers of downtown Nairobi, which gradually fade into the distance as they move away.

This visual imagery symbolizes the socio-economic distance between the wealthy and the impoverished. The density of people intensifies as they approach.... »


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